Sunday, July 19, 2020

12 Signs You May Have an Anxiety Disorder

12 Signs You May Have an Anxiety Disorder It was Monday, the weekend was over. This was the big day. Cindy’s big day. Her day to shine. It was the day she would win her company the tender they had been eyeing.She was well prepared. Her presentation was all memorized and her charts and tables available through her flash drive. She understood the importance of using visuals during presentations. Before leaving her office, she checks to confirm that she carried everything.Laptop? Check. Flash drive? Check. Notes (just in case)? Check.All was well.The driver pulls off the kerb and Cindy is on her way to meet her client. She pictures herself making the presentation. Will the procurement director be alone? Will the finance director be part of the team? What if the president of the firm attends as well?She has to impress. Does her dress look executive? Did she choose the right color? Is it too short? Cindy’s heart is racing. How will she start the presentation if the president attends? Are the figures she has indicated for Retu rn on Investment accurate?Of course they are. Her finance team worked on them and she confirmed everything. All the same, she decides to confirm. She pulls out her laptop and plugs the flash drive. She needs to check those figures again. Anyway, does it harm to confirm? At least she will be confident that all is fine, won’t she?It is very normal to be tense and nervous before an important engagement. For example before a job interview, meeting your girlfriend’s parents for the first time, going on your first date or just your first day at work.There are times when the nervousness starts consuming you to the point of being unsure about something you just confirmed. In this case, it may be a sign of an anxiety disorder. This is what Cindy was going through.WHAT IS AN ANXIETY DISORDER?An anxiety disorder is a mental health condition which is characterized by feelings of fear, worry and anxiety. These feelings are usually strong enough to interfere with your daily activities. You wo rry about a future event which you are not sure how best to handle.Or you just feel incapable of managing it.Although you can normally have these feelings and control them, that is not the case when you are suffering from an anxiety disorder. With an anxiety disorder, the feelings are intense, overwhelming and can stop you from performing your normal duties.TYPES OF ANXIETY DISORDERSAnxiety disorders are a class of mental conditions which manifest in different ways. Some of these anxiety disorders have symptoms which overlap. As such, you may show signs of a particular disorder but after talking to your doctor, realize that you actually have a different disorder.Anxiety disorders are not always easy to accurately diagnose. But openly talking to your doctor and him possibly carrying out some examinations will lead to the right diagnosis.Below we discuss the different types of anxiety disorders.Generalized anxiety disorderYou will be diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) i f you are excessively anxious and worried about everyday life events. You worry about everything from money, health, work to family.These worries are usually either unrealistic or exaggerated such that they do not align with the reality of the situation. An accurate diagnosis is given when you worry more often than not for a duration of at least six months.Although in an ideal situation you should be able to control your worry, you find this to be impossible. Thus your life becomes a continuous cycle of worry. You always anticipate negative outcomes and see the worst possibilities coming to pass.GAD affects 6.8 million American adults annually with women being twice as likely as men to be affected.With many negative thoughts clouding your mind, it becomes difficult to even go through the day. It is possible that you may later on realize that your fears were exaggerated. Unfortunately, this may not register solidly enough to enable you control your thoughts.Panic disorderThis disorde r is characterized by reoccurring panic attacks. The panic attacks occur suddenly and without warning. And since you do not know when the next one will come, you live with a fearful anticipation of it.This makes you afraid of going to some places, especially if you have experienced a panic attack before while there.A panic disorder can greatly interfere with your life as you seek to avoid social activities or even responsibilities. You may for example avoid making a presentation which is part of your job because the last time you did it, you suffered a panic attack.It is estimated that 1.5-4% of the general public suffer from panic disorder. Although it mostly affects people from early adulthood, children also suffer from panic disorder.Obsessive compulsory disorder (OCD)This condition affects your mind and makes you keep certain persistent thoughts of the need to repeat certain actions.The thoughts are what are referred to as obsessions, in that you cannot stop thinking about speci fic things. You become preoccupied with those thoughts until they form your basis of action.As the thoughts continue, the actions become your habits, thus forming the compulsions. These are the things you do everydayâ€"or very oftenâ€"even without questioning the rationale.OCD is a problem because the obsessions and compulsions tie you up to a lifestyle of distress.For example, you may have worrisome thoughts about how contaminated your environment is. Since you do not want to be infected, you have to perform an action so as to stay safe. The compulsion then becomes an excessive washing of your hands and kitchen as many times as possible to guarantee cleanliness.You may also have disturbing thoughts and mental images about the security of your home. To guarantee safety as you leave, you lock your house and then confirm that you have done it well. As you walk from your door, you feel the urge to just confirm one final time that the lock is intact.After this confirmation, you may feel the need to check your windows and even confirm that the space between the door and the floor is not big enough for someone to slip something through. In all these, your mind paints images of possible security breaches.In reality, your neighborhood may be adequately safe. More than that, as you perform these checks, you are definitely running out of time for your meetings or work.Specific phobiasPhobias are intense fears. The kind of fears that can literally stop you from going to a place or doing something for fear of what may happen.One common fear is the fear of heights, also known as acrophobia.If you are suffering from an anxiety disorder, you have other fears which interfere with your normal life. These stop you from going to places you should go to or doing things you are supposed to do.An example is agoraphobia, the fear of being in places where you think escape or finding help may not be possible. You therefore avoid such places since they may trigger panic attacks.For you to comfortably go to such places, you will often need the company of someone else so as to get the assurance of safety.Another phobia is glossophobia, the fear of public speaking. You may have had a bad experience before or you simply cannot bring yourself to speak in public. Although many people have this fear, the difference for you is that you are certain of suffering a panic attack, something you have to avoid.Check out the below video to get some tips for overcoming glossophobia. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)PTSD can be debilitating as it causes your mind to re-live past traumatic events. The cause is a past event which you either experienced personally or witnessed. This event registered in your mind as something which you should never experience again.It may be an involvement in a car accident. To avoid such an event from happening again, you decided never to drive a car. Or be driven but never to sit at the front. Still, any signs of a potential accident like the sc reeching of brakes, can send you into an anxiety attack.Another cause of PTSD can be the death of a close relative. For example, you probably lost one of your children due to an illness. The next time someone in your family becomes sick, it will be sufficient to trigger an anxiety attack.You will instantly remember the loss of your other child and see the death occurring again in this other family member.Social anxiety disorderThis is also called social phobia. It is the fear of the everyday social interactions that happen in life. You become fearful of being judged by others or wrongly evaluated.If having social anxiety disorder, then you will generally be afraid of what others will think about you. What they will think of your appearance, the words you use, what will happen if you stumble over words, whether you will be viewed as boring etc.As a result, you will avoid every kind of social event so as to stay away from the possible judgment from others.Other fears which you may hav e are being afraid of embarrassment and humiliation. You may also be afraid of being introduced to someone or being watched while doing something.SIGNS OF AN ANXIETY DISORDERAny of the above anxiety disorders can affect you. Although some people may be at higher risk, environmental conditions can make everyone susceptible.One of the factors that can lead to some of these is your upbringing. If you never had an opportunity to interact with people and did not learn how to express yourself well, you may have a problem doing so as an adult.There are instances where you may feel nervous yet you are not suffering from an anxiety disorder. An example is when you are approached by the person you have a crush on. You may feel too shy to even look at them in the eye. You may even be unable to speak.Does this mean you have an anxiety disorder?Shyness is just a feeling of awkwardness or apprehension and goes away as soon as you get to know the other person. On the other hand, anxiety disorders are characterized by symptoms which occur more than once. As a result you do whatever you can to try and avoid them.Even feelings of nervousness are common among people, especially when about to do something they don’t usually do. Still, that does not qualify them to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.Below are 12 signs you can use to diagnose yourself and know whether you could be having an anxiety disorder.1. Excessive worryWorry is normal for everyone. The difference when it comes to anxiety disorders is that it is too much. This worry is also completely unexplainable in rational ways.If you find yourself worrying about virtually everything, then chances are that you have an anxiety disorder. You will usually be worried about your health, work, family, traffic and everything else. All this with a lot of exaggeration. This excess worry can have effects beyond your mind.Whereas it’s possible to worry then come up with a way to prevent the worrying situation from either happe ning or escalating, you are not able to do this. For you, the preferred solution is usually to avoid facing the situation. If you have to face it, then you’ll be extra careful as you approach it.This leads to a huge impact on the way you live your life. In an attempt to avoid worrying situations, you end up avoiding many activities, even responsibilities.The downside of this is that you reduce your chances of interacting with people, thus keeping yourself from facing and dealing with the underlying fear.If you choose to approach the situation with extra care, then you put too much focus on the potential mistakes that could happen and end up being consumed by them. When mistakes occur, your fears haunt you, confirming that you should not have gotten into the situation in the first place.This makes you more inclined to avoid similar situations in the future.2. Chronic indigestionAnxiety, as a condition affecting the mind, has far-reaching effects. Not only does it affect your mood b ut also your digestive processes.The indigestion problem will typically start in your mouth, exactly where digestion starts. Since you are likely to be eating fast when feeling tense, you will not have chewed your food properly. As this food goes down your gut, several symptoms of indigestion may occur, including bloating and general digestion discomfort.At the same time, the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in digestion. Known to be one of the feel-good hormones, serotonin is also essential in the regulation of intestinal movements.When you have an anxiety disorder, serotonin levels are low. And a deficiency in serotonin causes digestion problems, irritable bowel syndrome, migraines, among other health disorders.From the below video, you will learn more about indigestion caused by anxiety and some ways to manage the problem. 3. Sleep problemsYou can only sleep well if your mind is at peace. If you have any anxiety disorder, your mind cannot enjoy peaceful times. A t least in most cases. Your mind simply has too much to think about.With an anxiety disorder, your mind will normally be very active at night, just as it was during the day, if not more. You will remember all the things which went wrong and start working on solutions. This is in anticipation of similar or worse problems which you feel will come up the following day.You may find that you have the energy to perform tasks and so you stay awake some more. If you go to bed, you may keep tossing and turning instead of sleeping. This is because your mind is trying to figure out how to avoid a repeat of the uncomfortable situations which caused you anxiety today.This leads to activity in your brain at a time when your circadian rhythm indicates that it’s time to sleep. Sleep is important for the replenishment of worn out body tissues to enable you be ready to carry out the necessary activities the following day.Lack of sleep or having it in irregular patterns sets the stage for a challeng ing day ahead. You will not have rested enough and your body will not be in a position to perform as expected. The condition you have will therefore be worsened because you will wake up knowing that you did not have enough rest.This fuels your fear of possibly making mistakes or being unable to concentrate while at work. You become afraid of dozing at work. You continue with the thinking and see the danger of being discovered sleeping in your office. You can only imagine the worst. Losing your job.It is possible that at this point, you will call in sick, just to avoid losing your job.4. Self-consciousnessThis is when you take self-awareness to the extreme. You think too much about what you are doing, how you’re dressed, how you’re walking, talking, carrying your bag, holding your pen etc. You think that something is wrong with the way you are doing things and people are noticing.When you become self-conscious, you are likely to actually start being clumsy. This can be caused by your mind focusing much of its attention on the part of your body which you are thinking about. As a result, other parts of your body which need to be functioning simultaneously get affected.For example, you might be walking into your office and start focusing on how long your strides are.You may not properly judge the position of the stairs and end up missing a step. Your colleagues may be sorry for you and even express it. But your mind tells you how this is evidence that something is not right with you.You now have two different things troubling your mind: your walking and thoughts of what your colleagues think about it. When you finally get to your office, the only urge you have is to hide and wish you could erase the memory of what happened earlier from the minds of your colleagues.Considering that anxiety disorders exaggerate your fears, you decide not to go to the cafeteria during tea break. You don’t even go out for lunch. This only serves to pile pressure on you.Self-cons ciousness is mainly a result of a past negative experience or something that caused you shame and embarrassment in public. All the same, you can overcome self-consciousness.5. FlashbacksThese are most common with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What feeds this disorder is the recall of the traumatic event that happened in the past.70% of Americans have experienced a traumatic event in their lives with up to 20% of them developing PTSD.Flashbacks acts like a constant reminder of the experience you had and the thought of it causes you distress. This is regardless of how long ago the event took place.After experiencing a traumatic event, the memory does not disappear. In fact, to enable you stay safe, your mind will keep a very vivid copy of that event so as to warn you of similar events.The challenge then becomes getting over the situation and knowing that it won’t happen again.To get to that point requires some work with a psychotherapist. You need to see the experience as a n unfortunate event that happened once and is not likely to happen again.An effective way of reducing the magnitude of flashbacks which are symptoms of PTSD is through Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). This type of therapy helps you work on the thoughts and emotions which fuel the flashbacks so that you keep them under control.Another equally effective therapy is the exposure therapy. In this therapy, you will be guided by your therapist on confronting your fears of the event. After the therapy, what used to trigger flashbacks is no longer a threat.6. Irrational fearsAll anxiety disorders have fear as their root cause. It is all about the fear of something bad happening.These fears communicate a threat that will interfere with your life. As such, you will automatically choose safety and avoid the situation which is a perceived threat.The fears are evidently irrational because of their exaggerated nature. There are dangers involved in going to certain places or doing certain things but your perception of these fears is out of proportion.For example, the Amazon forest has some dangerous animals. You may have seen them in documentary videos. But the problem is that you may start imagining some of those animals, especially the snakes, sneaking up on you. This is despite you living miles away from the Amazon rainforest.You can however rationalize your fears by thinking of how they easily move in search of prey.Alternatively, you may not realize this fear until when you later get an invitation to go camping. Immediately, you remember what you have seen in documentaries.You imagine the dangers posed by the animals which crawl at night and even see them attacking you while sleeping. You respond to these fears by turning down the camping invitation.7. Self-doubtAnother sign of an anxiety disorder is having self-doubt. Doubting your own judgments and abilities makes you unable to do much, if anything at all. You will not be able to make any decisions about your work, thus keep inquiring on what to do. Even when it is all in your power to act accordingly.You will also be unsure about your ability to achieve your dreams.For example, you may have thought of starting a business but are not sure whether you can make it. You may be clouded with thoughts of potential loss-making and eventually decide not to start the business.Even in the event of possible job losses, self-doubt makes you stuck in your current position. Maintaining the status quo becomes your preferred choice although you can see danger approaching.If someone offers you an opportunity to engage in business, you will still imagine the business going down. From that point, you imagine the shame you will experience after failing in business.Doubting yourself will never show you how you can build a profitable business and employ others. Instead, you will always have the negative thoughts of failing.8. PerfectionismMany people all over the world suffer from perfectionism. This is where you w ant everything you do to be perfect.There are bosses who literally drum this idea into the minds of their employees. But a pursuit of perfection is actually one in futility because perfection can never be achieved. This is because the state of affairs will always be changing.What is perfect now may not be prefect in the next hour.For you however, perfection is a dream you constantly chase, determined to catch. Despite not having registered any success so far, you feel a strong urge to continue pursuing it. This keeps you in a cycle of potential stress as you seek to achieve it.Failing to achieve perfection sets the ground for anxious thoughts and self-criticism which lead you to condemnation. Seeing that you are unable to do things perfectly, you start doubting your abilities.Perfectionism can also affect your performance in other ways. For example, it may make you take longer than necessary to make a decision. This is because you are striving to make a perfect decision.The good new s is that just like other tendencies, you can stop the effects of perfectionism by making some changes. You can do a great job, not a perfect one.If left unchecked, perfectionism can greatly affect your work as well as other aspects of your life. It can negatively impact your relationships because you may come across as someone who is expecting too much of others.9. Stage frightMany people admire those who confidently walk to a stage and in front of many people, successfully deliver a speech and the audience celebrates them. You probably have desired being able to do that but cannot bring yourself to even try it.Perhaps you tried once but it didn’t work out well. This may be what formed your basis of glossophobia.Your fear of public speaking makes you see the audience in one of three perspectives. First, as a distraction which makes you forget your speech and confuses you.Secondly, as a judge of your performance. You become alive to the fact that no matter how well you perform, th e audience may just think otherwise.Thirdly, the perspective you most possibly hold, is that the audience is a determiner of your social standing. This is where the biggest fear lies. You fear being labeled not good enough.This fear is likely to make you conclude that indeed you are not good enough. And the possible reasoning? If you were good enough, would you be experiencing stage fright?Unknown to you, many successful public speakers experience stage fright. The only difference is that they have learned how to overcome it.Being unable to comfortably express yourself makes it impossible, or at least extremely difficult, for your talents to be recognized. You may be having a rare skill but since you cannot voice it, no-one notices it.With your fear of speaking to people, you may even deliberately avoid utilizing your skill so as to avoid being recognized and subsequently asked to talk about it. This denies you and your company or business the opportunity to grow despite the potenti al within.If you can understand how stage fright happens, then you will be able to keep the fear at bay. Watch the below video for some insights. 10. Muscle tensionProblems with your mental health will always be felt in other parts of your body. The simple explanation of this is that your mind controls what happens in your whole body.When you have an anxiety disorder, your muscles tense more often than not. Although muscle tension can occur whenever you have stress, it normally goes away naturally with stress relief. But not for you.Muscle tension is a direct result of the stressful situations you perceive due to anxiety. When stressed, your body becomes ready for flight or fight. Your muscles contract to help you respond to threats accordingly.But there being no real threat in the case of anxiety, stress hormones remain high in your body. The more they are around or being often produced, the more you keep experiencing muscle tension.11. Constant nervousnessA clear and easy-to-detec t sign of anxiety is constant nervousness. When you find that you are often distressed and nervous at the thought of doing most things, then you probably have an anxiety disorder.The most important thing to understand about nervousness is that your subconscious mind is telling you that you are in danger. You may not even identify the real danger but you feel it is out there.Nervousness is normal and it happens in many instances. Be it a first date, a job interview, the final stage of a competition, everywhere. As powerful and influential as your subconscious mind is, it’s not designed to run your life entirely.In a normal situation, both the conscious and subconscious parts of your mind communicate to give you the best results. The subconscious knows when to take over and the conscious will allow it. But when one keeps overruling the other, then there is bound to be chaos.With anxiety disorders, the subconscious often overrules (unknowingly) the conscious by sensing real dangers w hen they are really small threats which the conscious should handle. Your stress response system kicks in and this keeps you in a perpetual state of “needing to act” so as to ensure safety.Nervousness can be handled. You just have to be willing to face it.12. RestlessnessAnxiety will always rob you of your peace. When others are relaxing and having a chat, you will always have something troubling your mind. You will always have a problem to think about. A solution to come up with so as to stay safe from an impending threat.You may need to move around in an effort to relax your mind by making it think of other things. You will be overwhelmed by the amount of work being done by your mind.You have feelings of being on edge and at the same time, might also become irritable.Restlessness may also make it difficult to accomplish tasks as you lose concentration due to the many thoughts you have in your mind. You may also feel cramps in your arms or legs whenever you are lying down or se ated. These prompt you to move.Another symptom of restlessness is tapping your feet or hands and being easily distracted. You will also have a problem organizing things at home or your office and struggle managing time.TREATMENTAnxiety disorders are treatable. All you have to do is seek professional medical help. Your lifestyle also determines how fast you get relief from the disorder. If you suffer from other conditions, treatment can also take longer than expected.Be open with your doctor and discuss every concern you have, including the cost of treatment. You will be pleased to know that there are low-cost treatment options in case one therapist is not able to work with you on cost.Some forms of treatment include learning how to deal with stress, some relaxation techniques as well as including exercises in your daily routines. You can also get relief from talking to someone who is understanding and supportive. You can also connect with this online community.While seeking or under going treatment, remember that you are on a journey of improving the quality of your life. Therefore, it is important to stay positive and surround yourself with the right kind of support.CONCLUSIONAnxiety disorders can affect anyone and so you should not be afraid of talking about it. The earlier you talk to your doctor, the sooner things get better for you. So, contact him today for a diagnosis and start your treatment.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Piaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development Essay - 1495 Words

Jean Piaget developed a cognitive approach to studying and classifying behavioral growth in stages. He believed that each child matured and learned at a different rate, so even though children mature in the same cognitive sequence, there might be separation in the achievement of each level from one child to the next (Swartwood, 2012, p. 46). Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development are Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational (Swartwood, 2012, p. 49). Piaget believed that there were defined characteristics of each stage that would be visible when the child reached it. They were marked stages, not an overall process. In the sensorimotor stage, object permanence is a major accomplishment. This ranges for ages zero to two years. The preoperational stage has the marked characteristics of egocentrism and centration and occurs around ages two to seven years. Conservation, reversibility and classification are the characteristics for seven to eleven year olds in the Concrete Operations stage. Hypothetico- Deductive reasoning and adolescent egocentrism are developed then in the final stage, Formal Operations and this stage is not achieved by everyone (Swartwood, 2012, p. 49). In effort to discover the accuracy and implications of Piaget’s cognitive theory, two subjects demonstrated various tasks showing the different spectrum of cognitive achievement. Both subjects were females, ages ten and twelve and were chosen in accordanceShow MoreRelatedPiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development1385 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract In this paper, Piaget’s Stages of cognitive development will be briefly explained, and I will explain where my cousin, Laura, is according to these stages. The real names of people discussed in this paper have been protected by not using their real names, so their personal information is confidential. My fifteen year old cousin Laura has been through many changes, and I have watched the rapid transformation in her personality, attitude, and way of thinking all in the past few years. Read MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development1072 Words   |  5 Pagespsychology concepts including Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, psychoactive drugs, and dreams. The first concept that I can relate to is Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Jean Piaget came up with this concept about how a child’s brain develops throughout their life. There are four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The two stages I can specifically relate to are the sensorimotor and preoperational stages. I have a three year old cousin whoRead MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development930 Words   |  4 PagesThe Cognitive Development theory refers to the ability to learn through thinking and reasoning. 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This stage actuallyRead MorePiaget s Stages Of Cognitive Development Theory900 Words   |  4 PagesThe cognitive development theory refers to the ability to learn through thinking and reasoning. Theorist Jean Piaget developed the stages of cognitive developmental according to age and how individuals learn through their environment and senses. These stages are from infant to teenage years. The first stage of Piaget’s Stages of Development is called Sensorimotor, which are ages 0-2. It describes how babies learn through their environment. The Next stages is preoperational for ages two through sevenRead MorePiaget s Four Stages Of Cognitive Development1600 Words   |  7 PagesThought-out the course of this year we have looked at the biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional theories of the human life span from infancy to late adulthood. The biological aspect of li fe span focused on the physical changes of humans. 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I will briefly outline and explain Piaget’s four stages and due toRead MorePiaget s Stage Theory Account For Children s Cognitive Development1759 Words   |  8 PagesHow well does Piaget’s stage theory account for children’s cognitive development? Intro Piaget believed there were four stages in a child’s cognitive development and sub stages within these stages. These stages have been the object of debate since Piaget introduced them and are still continuously debated. All of the stages are very concrete and large scale. They don’t account for children at a particular age who are behind or ahead. Piaget underestimated the capability of children to do particularRead MorePiaget s Eight Stages Of Development And Vygotsky s Theory On Cognitive Development Essay2193 Words   |  9 Pagesthat happens is just apart of life. Two theories that I would like to focus on that I believe have had the biggest impact in my life are, Erikson’s eight stages of development and Vygotsky’s theory on cognitive development. Erikson’s theory is based off of 8 stages ranging from ages â€Å"zero† (birth); where we learn to either trust our caregiver(s) or we develop mistrust where we may become suspicious or anxious. Up until death, where we end with integrity vs. despair; where we either we either fullyRead MoreThe First Stage Of Jean Piaget s Cognitive Development982 Words   |  4 PagesThe first stage of Jean Piaget’s Cognitive development is the Sensorimotor Period. This stage is the earliest of cognitive growth. The Sensorimotor stage happen within the first two years of a child’s life. During this stage children are only aware of what is in front of them. They primarily focus what is in their possession at the moment, what they can get into, and their physical environme nt. When I was a child I went throw the process of the sensorimotor stage. My mom said when I was four months

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Outline Of A Thesis Statement - 2067 Words

Outline THESIS STATEMENT: Individuals who are found guilty of vehicular manslaughter should be sentenced to a minimum of ten years in prison I: Introduction i. Definition of vehicular manslaughter ii. Causes of vehicular manslaughter iii. Sentences for various charges if found guilty II: Body i. The punishments for vehicular homicide according to different states ii. Common penalties if found guilty iii. Why these penalties are not sufficient enough iv. Arguments against justifiable homicide v. Why vehicle manslaughter victims get few years in prison vi. the problem of issuing a less stiff sentence to the offenders vii. Opposing arguments against the thesis statement viii. weighing between preventive measures and strict laws in solving the problem of vehicular homicide III: Conclusion i. Restatement of the thesis statement ii. Concluding remarks on why we need to issue more than ten years of sentences to offenders of vehicular manslaughter Individuals who are found guilty of vehicular manslaughter should serve not less than ten years in jail Vehicular homicide is an offense that, in general, encompasses the death of a person other than the driver due to criminal, recklessness or deadly operation of a vehicle. When the vehicular homicide is unintentional, one is convicted of vehicular manslaughter or reckless assault. Vehicular manslaughter occurs when a person carelessly causes the death of another individual using of any kind of motorShow MoreRelatedOutline Of A Thesis Statement3601 Words   |  15 PagesThesis / Claim Station: Your claim or thesis statement is the most important part of your argumentative essay. It is the sentence where you state your main argument and outline how you will prove it. 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Introduce topic and motivate audience: The healthcare cost hasRead MoreCom176 outline and thesis statement1246 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿University of Phoenix Material Outline and Thesis Statement Guide Create an outline that includes details that support your thesis. Identify at least three main points and at least two supporting details per main point. Write all supporting details and subdetails in complete sentences. Include both in-text citations in the outline and a references page following the outline. Many of your supporting details and subdetails will need in-text citations. Outline only the body of your paper (notRead MoreDetailed Outline. Introduction . †¢My Thesis Statement..1277 Words   |  6 Pages Detailed Outline Introduction †¢ My thesis statement. †¢ My intro will cover where I got the idea for this research. †¢ Key Ideas leading to Gaps/Motivation †¢ The holes I found. †¢ Why I wanted to stay away from PTSD research †¢ What I learned from the lit review †¢ background †¢ more background†¦. †¢ Why my research matters Method Participants †¢ Fourty traditional college students (18-22-year-olds) attending the University of Arkansas will be used as participants †¢ Twenty females and twenty males †¢Read MoreOutline. Thesis Statement: Body Language Expresses Emotions860 Words   |  4 PagesOutline Thesis Statement: Body language expresses emotions and actions unconsciously and differs between men and women depending on their brain type, emotional experience and culture. I. Female and Male Brain A. What is the difference? B. Biological differences C. Cultural differences D. Experiences II. Emotional Experiences A. Impact on female emotions B. Impact on male emotions III. Comparing Social Gestures A. Germany B. Lebanon Body Language Body language is â€Å"the conscious andRead MoreThesis + Outline I. Thesis Statement: Has been ongoing throughout the world as being both500 Words   |  2 PagesThesis + Outline I. Thesis Statement: Has been ongoing throughout the world as being both unconstitutional and inhumane or a just punishment for those who offend certain laws, eye for an eye. Capital Punishment should be legalized because it is ethical, safety for the public and to lower the cost of prisons. Capital punishment is appropriate because it provides a strong durance against future crime, it protects the rights of victims, and because everyone benefits from it. II. Background: HistoryRead MoreEssay Outline Practice982 Words   |  4 PagesMaking an Outline A Plan That Builds an Essay ay s Es --- -- ---- ---- ------- ----- The Benefits of an Outline An outline of an essay: ï  ® helps make your essay more organized ï  ® A careful plan will help your body paragraphs stay focused on the ideas in your thesis statement. ï  ® saves time for writers ï  ® Preparing an outline can take time, but you will be able to write the rough draft of your essay more quickly Outline format Essay Outline I. Introduction Thesis: _____________________ IIRead MoreEssay on All That Jazz1115 Words   |  5 Pagesessay as well as the framework for a formal outline that you can and should use for each of your essays. Print out the final pages and fill in the info by hand so that you can see how your body paragraphs are organized. Note though, that your essay might have more than four body paragraphs. Please recall that formal outlines must accompany each essay you write, but note that the basic formula TEMPLATE provided does not have Roman numerals though your outline should like example #3 in the OutliningRead MoreOutline Of The Oklahoma City Bombing1665 Words   |  4 PagesMuskan  Hossain     American  Terror:  The  Oklahoma  City  Bombing  cements  terrorism  into  the  minds  of   citizens  Ã‚      Thesis:   Due  to  the  Oklahoma  City  Bombing,  U.S.  citizens  are  corrected  of  their  stereotypical   thoughts  towards  terrorism;  Terrorists  aren’t  commonly  Muslims  or  foreign  enemies.      I. Overview      II. The  significance  of  the  Oklahoma  City  Bombing   A. Controversies  that  arose   B. Questions  thought  and  asked  by  the  citizens   C. Impact  towards  the  Federal  Government   D.   How  it  shook  the  ilRead MoreKinds of Outline1155 Words   |  5 Pages1. What is an OUTLINE? An  outline  is an organizational tool used by writers to gather thoughts so that they can be clearly laid out in an essay or book. Many writers feel that creating an  outline  is the key to effective writing, and it certainly makes the writing process more efficient and focused. By creating an  outline  for a piece of writing, the author ensures that all the pieces of the puzzle are presented in a logical, clear order, and that they flow well, drawing the reader to a logical conclusion

Nomadic Societies Free Essays

They developed by adapting to the ecological conditions of their arid lands. Due to the lack of rain in central Asia they are not able to support large scale agriculture. The Nomadic people would bring their herds of animals to lands that actually had large amounts of grass, and stubs so that they could graze. We will write a custom essay sample on Nomadic Societies or any similar topic only for you Order Now They lived off of only meat, milk, and the hides of their animals. They used animal bones for tools and animal feces for fuel. Classify their interaction with the sedentary states. Their interaction with the sedentary states was mostly throughout trade and â€Å"they sometimes even adopted aspects of secondary cultures, and acted as intermediaries between settled worlds. † (Sanders, Nelson, Morillo, Ellenberger, 2006, p. 181) Was it always hostile? No, they were not always hostile while interacting with others and they had a very strong military. Because they had such a strong worriers they were able to seize the wealth of settled societies they then were able to build imperial states in the regions surrounding central Asia. How were they viewed differently? * A first century BCE description of the Xiongnu, the archetypal nomadic peoples of the Chinese world. * A late fourth century Roman view of the Huns. * One of the barbarian groups that invaded the Roman Empire. description of the steppe nomads by the tenth-century Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus that reflects both Byzantine experience and the classical legacy of Greek and Roman views and terms * Ibn-Al-Athir gives us an early –thirteenth-century Muslim view of the Mongol attacks on the Islamic World, and Marco Polo, a European who lived for years at the Mongol court, gives us something of an â€Å"outside insiders† view of Mongol life. (Sanders, Nelson, Morillo, Ellenberger, 2006, p. 181) They also normally did little governing seeing how clans and tribes pretty uch looked out for themselves. And they were known to have a very strong military. Analyze the Mongol empire. The nomadic Mongols lived on the high steppe lands of eastern central Asia they displayed deep loyalty to kin groups organized into families, clans, and tribes. They were allies with Turkish people who had built empires on the steppes. They were unable to establish strong stable society on a large scale due to their loyalties to kinship groups. What kind of a leader was Chinggis (Ghenghis) Khan? He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy which called for displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to allies, a willingness to betray others to improve one’s position, and the ability to entice other tribes into cooperative relationships. In 1206 a group of Mongol leaders recognized Temujin supremacy by proclaiming him Chinggis was known as a universal leader. † (Bentley, Ziegler, Streets, 2008, p. 272) Why did the empire decline? The empire then declined due to serious difficulties governing Persia and China. In Persia they had cases of excessive spending which strained the treasury, and overexploitation of the peasantry led to reduced revenues. They tried to fix their mess by creating paper money in the 1290’s but the merchants refused to accept paper, they thought it was worthless. Then when the last Mongol ruler pasted away in 1335 there was no heir the ilkhanate collapsed. What overall effect did the Mongols have on the eastern world? Even though the Mongols came to an end it was not the end of the nomadic peoples influence on Eurasia. The Turkish people resumed the expansive campaigns that the Mongols had interrupted. How to cite Nomadic Societies, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs Essay Example

Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs Paper Utilitarian aspect of an attitude toward a behavior relates to usefulness, value, and intelligence of the behavior as perceived by the consumer. Hedonic aspect relates to pleasure experienced or anticipated from the behavior. Utilitarian product The utilitarian product that I choose would be a Honda Accord. This product is utilitarian because it is offered at an affordable price. The car gets great gas mileage and the dealership offers great financing so that you are able to afford it. Hedonic product The hedonic product that I choose is the Mini Cooper. I am choosing this product because I can choose the color that I want and the style of the Mini Cooper. Also I choose this product because of the dimensions and cargo space that it offers. The Honda website shows at least ten different models and the pricing on each one. The Honda website also shows how you can build and price your own Honda so it can have all the features that you want. You have the option of selecting your own color and add on accessories to the car, such as sunroof, 6 disc cd changer and a consumer can also choose if they want to have alloy wheels on the car. We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarian and Hedonic Needs specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It also shows how many people can be seated in the car and how many miles you get to a gallon, which most of the cars on the website range from 25 miles per gallon all the way up to 44 miles per gallon. With gas being at an all time high, that would definitely be a great factor to look at if a consumer was purchasing a car. The website also lets you know which car is the most fuel efficient and it shows cars that they use, which have an alternative to using fuel. As a consumer, you have many features to choose from and options to decide between before making a decision on what car you want. The Mini Cooper has a lot to offer. It is small and efficient to fit any consumer’s needs. They offer Sirius XM Satellite Radio with a 1 year subscription and they also offer HD radio technology. The car offers either a 6-speed Getrag transmission or a 6-speed automatic transmission. They offer the hardtop, the convertible, the coupe and also the John Works models. The Mini Cooper website states that it offers 488 miles per tank, which is a great feature and I don’t think any consumer could turn away from that feature because every American wants to save money and by offering the Mini Cooper with such good gas mileage, it would make the average consumer look at this vehicle twice. It also offer an active safety feature that keeps you from having an accident and it meets the passive safety features, which offers an ultra rigid body, 6 airbags with side protection, crash sensor system and an engine immobilizer. The Mini Cooper also has a suggested retail price starting at $20,200, which is really great for all the features that it offers. Fuel, safety, and performance with this car are all positive features to make a consumer want to purchase the Mini Cooper. Honda. Shop for Honda. (2012). Retrieved on November 27, 2011 from http://automobiles. honda. com/shop/accord-sedan. aspx? Group=accords Mini. Colors, Features and Specs. (2012) Retrieved on November 27, 2011 from http://www. miniusa. com/mini-cooper-top-features. html#/learn/FACTS_FEATURES_SPECS/Top_Features-m

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Handmaids Tale and Tess of the DUrbervilles Essay Example

The Handmaids Tale and Tess of the DUrbervilles Essay Example The Handmaids Tale and Tess of the DUrbervilles Paper The Handmaids Tale and Tess of the DUrbervilles Paper Essay Topic: A White Heron Literature The Handmaids Tale The Dictionary definition of Control as a means of restraining or regulating, is most obvious in the way the characters are defined by the society in which they live. For example, the Republic of Gilead, the regime under which Offred lives, aims to control its subjects utterly and annihilate all dissenters. It is a pattern of life, based on conformity, censorship and terror in short, the usual terms of existence enforced by totalitarian states1. More than this, however, Gileads most potent weapon of control is ignorance. Atwood herself comments on the plight of Offred and indeed all her sex, her lack of information is part of the nightmare. We, as the readers, are aware from the beginning that everyone is given a specific yet blinkered role and that it is accepted (nothing is going on here that I havent signed up for). Everyone, from the Marthas to the denizens of Jezebels, has a specific name which indicates what their role is that is accepted also. From the wings on her head-dress which only allow her to perceive a partial version of her world, to the ownership tattoo on her ankle, Offred seemingly has no freedom. Even her name is sublimated to her role as a worthy vessel. Each choreographed Prayvaganza, each electric cattle-prod, and each shatter proof, non-opening window is testimony to the societys desire for control of the transitional generation to win ultimate control, ironically, by virtually airbrushing out those who contributed to its success. Offred comments wryly, that in future photograph albums, well be invisible ut the children will be in them alright. The same cannot be said necessarily for the society in Tess of the DUrbervilles. The rural Wessex setting seems at first, not nearly as suffocating as the manicured lawns and ubiquitous check points of the The Handmaids Tale. Tess lives in an area with Grassy banks, Blue hills and a languorous atmosphere; we get the impression that there are fewer constraints on her. Tess indeed has the freedom to attend the May Dance, whereas Offred is forced to take part in the monthly Ceremony and Particicution. Tess and the inhabitants of her world, on the other hand, totally accept the control that society has enforced upon them, but the recurrent leitmotiv in the novel is one of control imposed more by complete unfairness and injustice, over and above merely taking certain casually held attitudes about women to their logical conclusions, (Atwood). Unfairness dominates the lives of Tess and her family to such an extent that it begins to seem like a general aspect of human existence. Tess stands throughout the novel helplessly looking on. Her unfair blame over the death of Prince controls her entire fate. She has to bear the consequence of her rape (that bastard gift of shameless Nature who respects not the social law) in a world not of Christian justice at all, but controlled by whimsical and uncaring pagan injustice. Sexism in society overrides even the controls imposed by destiny and ignorance in both novels. In The Handmaids Tale, sexism is much more than just another crummy power trip. Women are reduced to mere lowly generic terms such as Handmaid and Martha, whereas Men are Commanders or gun-toting Angels. The Gileadean revolution was motivated almost entirely by a desire to (re)oppress women. This is made explicit by the Commander: the takeover was necessary, he explains, because there was nothing left for men to do with women. Sex, he says, patronisingly, was part of the problem. As a result, There was nothing (for men) to work for. The entire regime seems organised to subjugate and silence women. The oppression is so absolute and so otherwise unmotivated that it could be the result only of an innate and virtually universal need by men to oppress women. Even Luke, it turns out, doesnt mind it at all when the revolution takes away his lovers independence; (maybe) he even likes it. Furthermore, the Historical Notes, rather than mitigating this situation, reinforce it, by presenting the regime that follows Gilead as quite as misogynist as the original. Professor Pieixoto only really seems to be interested in the Commander (What we would only give, now, for even twenty pages or so of printout from Waterfords private computer! ) rather than the Handmaid and her suffering. What is remarkable is not that the professor says these things, but that they are accompanied by laughter and applause and that not a single voice is raised in objection. Nobody, not even the female academics demonstrably present, speaks up to counter Pieixotos unrepentantly sexist2 comments. The misogyny of the new regime suggests that Gilead has in fact not ended, at least not in any satisfactory sense; the forces underlying it have merely taken on a new form of control. Both Angel and Alec, who has chauvinistically appropriated the name of DUrberville, exhibit a sexist double standard, but whereas Alec, who exercises his droit de seigneur without a qualm, flippantly remarks, thats just like you women. Your mind is enslaved to his, Angel is troubled by obeying conventional rules contrary to his real feelings: he is vexed that he cannot help but see Tess as spoilt goods and is therefore not free of the prejudices and controls of his sex in the context of his own time and culture (who was the moral man? Still more pertinently, who was the moral woman? ). Yet he tells her of his moral slip(s) before their marriage first, and expects her to understand fully his one mistake only due to the fact that he was born as a man. Similarly, the (male) Priest will not even give Sorrow the Undesired a Christian burial. As a Fallen Woman, Tess has to endure humiliation in which the confines of her sex induce a wretched sentiment almost of Original Sin: in inhabiting the fleshly tabernacle with which nature had endowed her she was somehow doing wrong. Like Janine, who confesses to being gang-raped, sexism demands that she view it as her fault. Offred and her fellow Handmaids, ironically, are lauded precisely because they do the job of a Fallen Woman, constantly being transferred from one house to another. Their humiliation lies rather in being declared Unwoman, but the implication is clearly the same. The theme of control is also implicit in the way the characters, within every stratum and class, strive to gain control over each other and themselves. In The Handmaids Tale, this very often takes the form of seemingly insignificant actions by one character over another: Serena Joy likes to keep the Commander waiting outside the door (Its a little thing, but in this household, little things mean a lot), and Rita withholds petty information from Offred. Likewise, the banter between Offred and Rita concerning the match belies the fact that it signifies Offreds newly-acquired superiority over the Martha Have I become, suddenly, one of those who must be appeased? Apart from the obvious cattle prods or grizzly corpses on the Wall, small objects take on a crucial implication in the way the characters can control each other. Serena Joy shows Offred a photo of her child as emotional blackmail, Offred feels that to steal some small thing from the living room would make me feel that I have power, and the hand cream/scrabble/magazines from the Commander causes Offred to realise that Things have changed. I have something on him now. It is Offred who holds the Trump card on all counts; she can control those who seek to control her by using collusion of a sort, betrayal of a sort, most significantly with Serena Joy She does want that baby. In Tess of the DUrbervilles we are never quite sure whether it is sheer force of character or merely Fate which controls the plot and motives of the characters and conspires to cause the emotional denouement. Rather than symbolic messages or objects, it is overwhelmingly the male characters that exert a power over the others. Alecs act of abuse, the most life-altering event that Tess experiences in the novel, is clearly the most serious instance of male domination over a female (Her views on life had been totally changed for her). Even more unsettling than Alecs blatant cruelty is the fact that, after Angel reveals that he prefers Tess, Tess friend Retty attempts suicide and her friend Marian becomes an alcoholic. These girls appear utterly dominated by a desire for a man who, we are told explicitly, does not even realise that they are interested in him they are the homelier ones whom he ignored. Even Angels love for Tess, as pure and gentle as it seems, dominates her in an unhealthy way. He calls her Daughter of Nature and Artemis, seeking to control and sublimate her true self in favour of a mental image that he prefers. The crowd of male police officers who surround Tess at Stonehenge at the end of the novel is a final striking image of an almost suffocating desire for personal control (They all closed in with evident purpose) in a world where Fate seems to have the upper hand: it was to be. Although at first it might seem as if The Handmaids Tale is a purely passive account, we can see that the characters are all striving towards a common goal active self control. Serena Joy bursts into tears on every Ceremony night and knits everlasting scarves covered in pictures of children, but attains her version of freedom by withdrawing emotionally from the Commander. Offred sees the ultimate value of accepting that her life is not a paranoid delusion, that she is not a missing person, because she maintains the my in her personality (my room, my name) which is the most basic form of self-control, that of sanity: I hoard it, the way people once hoarded money. I save it, so I will have enough, when the time comes. The imagery of mirrors in the novel reinforces the theme of characters striving for control over their own lives. Offred attempts to catch a glimpse of her face in the hallway mirror, but finds that it is distorted, and all bathroom mirrors are replaced by dull metal which reveals nothing. Offred and Serena Joy are together reduced to mere uncontrolled shapeless forms in the brief glass eye of the mirror. Her collusion with Nick in Serenas parlour is a self-limiting rather than a liberating exercise: he cant give me away, nor I him; for the moment, were mirrors. In a metaphorical sense, Offred conjectures, on the night of the Ceremony, how it must feel for the Commander to see himself mirrored in the eyes of others: to have them watching him all the time it must be hell. Significantly, it is only when Offred sees herself in the ample mirror under the white light in the hotel room at Jezebels that she begins to appreciate the reality of an existence outside her own narrow, controlled life. Atwood uses the imagery of colour and objects from the natural world, such as flowers and fruit, as well as sexual imagery, to convey a nightmarish sense of control by the very environment surrounding the protagonists. Offred appropriately compares the bright red tulips to chalices or sexual organs (swelling genitalia of the flowers) and sees them as representing her own proscribed existence as a two legged womb. In the same way, the barren Wives are forced to wear blue, a cold colour, and are described in terms of decay (her greying hair spreading like mildew over the rug) and infirmity, such as Serena Joys gradually crippling hands. Control by the circularity of life is a major theme in Tess of the DUrbervilles and Hardys imagery crucially underlines it as the natural order of things. First, the use of seasons to denote the passage of time implies continuity. Years are shown as repetitions with variations rather than as new creations. Tess herself views time in this way, and philosophically noted dates as they came past in the revolution of the year. In the novel, the past and the future are merely points on the cycle which nature controls. Secondly, the plot itself is not only circular, but contains a myriad of smaller circles within it. The main circle of the plot is from the discovery of the DUrberville Tombs to Tess death. Within this circle revolve others. The life and death of Sorrow is a small circle within the larger one. Alec DUrbervilles repentance and recantation form another. Clares and Tess physical journeys towards and away from and back again to each other represent more circles, which is mirrored by the dominating image of the herons in a passionless wheel above them. At the start of the novel Tess and her companions dance in a circle on the green; at its end, she stops to rest at Stonehenge. This pattern of circularity provides an echoing dimension for the narrow folk-ballad tragedy in which Tess is trapped3, and is particularly appropriate because the cycles of life which rule her externally mirror her own internal cycles over which she has no control (or as the Commander puts it to Offred, you cant cheat nature). In The Handmaids Tale, control of the first-person narrative is very firmly in the hands of Offred. Atwood forces us to hear her story from a very limited perspective, and even when we are given a choice of scenarios, such as the fate of Luke or what happens during her encounter with Nick, we are never entirely sure of the truth. More than once, Offred says, I made that up. It is not until we are allegedly given the bigger picture by Professor Pieixoto that we can feel fully in control, sitting up on a hill at the end, as E. M. Forster puts it in Aspects of the Novel. The episodic nature of Tess of the DUrbervilles, however, written in the third person, means that it is Hardy, rather than the heroine, who assumes complete omniscience, who has access to and can judge the beauty or ugliness of a character accordingly. The omniscience of the narrator effectively gives the reader control: it allows us not to be influenced by the character in the interpretations of the characters behaviour and feelings. Using such a narrative technique, Hardy allows himself to be somewhat detached from his characters, often appearing as though he himself does not sympathise with the tragedy that is Tess: at the end he tells us that Justice was done. The effect of the novel not being narrated by Tess is that we as the readers are given an omniscient perception of the lives of other characters of which Tess herself is unaware, and allowed to interpret for ourselves the predicament in which characters other than Tess are placed. However, notwithstanding Hardys use of dialogue, this style of narration precludes total control by the reader, since by its very nature the characters can only ever be (faithfully) presented4. This prevents us from having a direct line into the thoughts, feelings and motives of the characters, so that their inner life remains unknowable5, and does not allow for the character to communicate directly in the way that Offred can by the continual use of the pronouns I and we: for example, Hardy tells us that Tess in her misery at the death of Sorrow, rocked herself upon the bed, but it is so much more poignant when Offred herself describes their attempted escape from Gilead: the little girl who is now dead sits in the back seat ith her stuffed rabbit, mangy with age and love I cant think about the rabbit too much though, I cant start to cry.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Official ACT to SAT (New 1600 and Old 2400) Conversion Charts

Official ACT to SAT (New 1600 and Old 2400) Conversion Charts SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips One of the first thoughts you might have after getting back your ACT or SAT score is how well you would have done on the other test. Luckily, SAT to ACT conversion (and ACT to SAT conversion) is possible! In this post, we provide conversion charts from the test makers themselves to help you with score conversions between both the current and old versions of the SAT and the ACT. We also look at whether certain colleges go easier on the SAT or ACT- and what you can do about it. ACT to SAT Conversion Tool We took the College Board's official concordance tables and made a tool for you to automatically convert your ACT scores into SAT scores. We've even included both current 1600 and old 2400 SAT conversions. Look at the latter if you took the ACT before 2016 and are curious about how your ACT score would have translated into an SAT score when originally you took the ACT. Just enter your ACT score on the left to get your SAT scores on the right: Enter your ACT score here: ACT Composite (out of 36) Get SAT scores here: SAT Composite (out of 1600) Old SAT Composite (out of 2400) // 36) { $(this).val(36); } var act = parseInt($("#in_act").val()); var old_sat; var new_sat; if (!isNaN(act)) { switch (act){ case 36: new_sat = 1600; old_sat = 2390; break; case 35: new_sat = "1560 to 1590"; old_sat = "2300 to 2370"; break; case 34: new_sat = "1520 to 1550"; old_sat = "2210 to 2280"; break; case 33: new_sat = "1490 to 1510"; old_sat = "2150 to 2190"; break; case 32: new_sat = "1450 to 1480"; old_sat = "2080 to 2130"; break; case 31: new_sat = "1420 to 1440"; old_sat = "2020 to 2060"; break; case 30: new_sat = "1400 to 1410"; old_sat = "1970 to 2000"; break; case 29: new_sat = "1350 to 1380"; old_sat = "1900 to 1950"; break; case 28: new_sat = "1310 to 1340"; old_sat = "1840 to 1880"; break; case 27: new_sat = "1280 to 1300"; old_sat = "1790 to 1820"; break; case 26: new_sat = "1240 to 1270"; old_sat = "1730 to 1780"; break; case 25: new_sat = "1200 to 1230"; old_sat = "1670 to 1710"; break; case 24: new_sat = "1160 to 1190"; old_sat = "1610 to 1650"; break; case 23: new_sat = "1130 to 1150"; old_sat = "1560 to 1590"; break; case 22: new_sat = "1100 to 1120"; old_sat = "1510 to 1540"; break; case 21: new_sat = "1060 to 1090"; old_sat = "1450 to 1490"; break; case 20: new_sat = "1020 to 1050"; old_sat = "1390 to 1430"; break; case 19: new_sat = "980 to 1010"; old_sat = "1330 to 1370"; break; case 18: new_sat = "940 to 970"; old_sat = "1270 to 1310"; break; case 17: new_sat = "900 to 930"; old_sat = "1210 to 1250"; break; case 16: new_sat = "860 to 890"; old_sat = "1150 to 1200"; break; case 15: new_sat = "810 to 850"; old_sat = "1070 to 1140"; break; case 14: new_sat = "760 to 800"; old_sat = "990 to 1060"; break; case 13: new_sat = "720 to 750"; old_sat = "930 to 980"; break; case 12: new_sat = "630 to 710"; old_sat = "820 to 910"; break; case 11: new_sat = "560 to 620"; old_sat = "750 to 810"; break; default: new_sat = "Too low for data"; old_sat = "Too low for data" } $("#out_new_sat").val(new_sat); $("#out_old_sat").val(old_sat); } else { $("#out_old_total").val(''); $("#out_new_total").val(''); } }); }); // ]]> You'll probably want to see how your ACT and SAT subscores compare, too. For that, simply read our guide to converting subscores. Also, if you're converting to see which test you should take, we recommend checking out our guide to see whether you're a good candidate for taking both the ACT and SAT. SAT to ACT Conversion Tool Want to go in the other direction? Here are two tools to go from current 1600 SAT to ACT, or from old 2400 SAT to ACT. Note that the vast majority of high school students these days will have taken the 1600 SAT, but if you took the SAT before 2016 and are curious about how your scores would have converted to an ACT score (perhaps you're applying for an educational job or are casually comparing scores with friends), our conversion tool can lend you a hand. SAT to ACT Conversion Enter your SAT score here: SAT (out of 1600) Get your ACT score here: ACT Composite (out of 36) // 1600) { $(this).val(1600); } var new_sat = parseInt($("#in_newsat").val()); var act; if (!isNaN(new_sat)) { if (new_sat > 1590) {act = 36;} else if (new_sat > 1550 } else if (new_sat > 1520 } else if (new_sat > 1490 } else if (new_sat > 1450 } else if (new_sat > 1420 } else if (new_sat > 1390 } else if (new_sat > 1350 } else if (new_sat > 1310 } else if (new_sat > 1280 } else if (new_sat > 1240 } else if (new_sat > 1200 } else if (new_sat > 1160 } else if (new_sat > 1130 } else if (new_sat > 1100 } else if (new_sat > 1060 } else if (new_sat > 1020 } else if (new_sat > 980 } else if (new_sat > 940 } else if (new_sat > 900 } else if (new_sat > 860 } else if (new_sat > 810 } else if (new_sat > 760 } else if (new_sat > 720 } else if (new_sat > 630 } else if (new_sat > 560 } else { act = "Too low"; } $("#out_act").val(act); } else { $("#out_act").val(''); } }); }); // ]]> Old 2400 SAT to ACT Conversion Enter your Old SAT score here: Old SAT Composite (out of 2400) Get your ACT score here: ACT Composite (out of 36) // 2400) { $(this).val(2400); } var old_sat = parseInt($("#in_oldsat").val()); var act; if (!isNaN(old_sat)) { if (old_sat >= 2390) {act = 36;} else if (old_sat >= 2300 } else if (old_sat >= 2210 } else if (old_sat >= 2150 } else if (old_sat >= 2080 } else if (old_sat >= 2020 } else if (old_sat >= 1970 } else if (old_sat >= 1900 } else if (old_sat >= 1840 } else if (old_sat >= 1790 } else if (old_sat >= 1730 } else if (old_sat >= 1670 } else if (old_sat >= 1610 } else if (old_sat >= 1560 } else if (old_sat >= 1510 } else if (old_sat >= 1450 } else if (old_sat >= 1390 } else if (old_sat >= 1330 } else if (old_sat >= 1270 } else if (old_sat >= 1210 } else if (old_sat >= 1150 } else if (old_sat >= 1070 } else if (old_sat >= 990 } else if (old_sat >= 930 } else if (old_sat >= 820 } else if (old_sat >= 750 } else { act = "Too low"; } $("#out_act2").val(act); } else { $("#out_act2").val(''); } }); }); // ]]> Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Why Convert Between the SAT and ACT? ACT to SAT conversion can be extremely helpful for figuring out which test you're better at. It’s smartest to focus your efforts on just the SAT or ACT to maximize your score, rather than trying to score well on both tests. But if you take just one test, it’s useful to know how your score translates so you can better understand your performance as well as your chances of admission at various colleges. For example, by taking a practice test for both the SAT and ACT, you can figure out which test you're naturally better at. If you score dramatically higher on one test vs the other (say, the equivalent of 2 ACT points), you'll know to study for and take that test instead. If you're applying to college in the United States, you'll most likely need to take either the SAT or ACT. How can you decide which test to take? By using our SAT/ACT Decider Tool, of course! Learn which test you'll do best on and get a suggested testing schedule today. As we explore below, ACT-SAT conversion doesn't always line up exactly at schools. Understanding what converting is and why it is not always even at certain schools can help you maximize your admission chances. Finally, be aware that converting composite scores won't give you the most accurate data. As a result, always convert your section scores, too. SAT-ACT Conversion Tables The most accurate SAT-ACT concordance tables come directly from the makers of the SAT and ACT (the College Board and ACT, Inc., respectively). These are the only official conversion charts you can use to translate your ACT score into an SAT score (and vice versa). Table 1: SAT-ACT Conversion Table SAT ACT SAT ACT SAT ACT 1600 36 1250 26 900 16 1590 36 1240 26 890 16 1580 36 1230 26 880 16 1570 36 1220 25 870 15 1560 35 1210 25 860 15 1550 35 1200 25 850 15 1540 35 1190 24 840 15 1530 35 1180 24 830 15 1520 34 1170 24 820 14 1510 34 1160 24 810 14 1500 34 1150 23 800 14 1490 34 1140 23 790 14 1480 33 1130 23 780 14 1470 33 1120 22 770 13 1460 33 1110 22 760 13 1450 33 1100 22 750 13 1440 32 1090 21 740 13 1430 32 1080 21 730 13 1420 32 1070 21 720 12 1410 31 1060 21 710 12 1400 31 1050 20 700 12 1390 31 1040 20 690 12 1380 30 1030 20 680 11 1370 30 1020 19 670 11 1360 30 1010 19 660 11 1350 29 1000 19 650 11 1340 29 990 19 640 10 1330 29 980 18 630 10 1320 28 970 18 620 10 1310 28 960 18 610 9 1300 28 950 17 600 9 1290 27 940 17 590 9 1280 27 930 17 1270 27 920 17 1260 27 910 16 Source: The College Board Note that this conversion chart comes from the College Board only. ACT, Inc., has commented that this table has not yet been verified by them, and that the two organizations must collaborate to create a more accurate conversion table. In my opinion, this table is likely to be pretty close in accuracy, so it's OK to use it for planning purposes for now. Table 2: Old SAT-ACT Conversion Table For those of you who want to compare an ACT score with an old SAT score out of 2400, use the table below. Because the current version of the SAT has been in effect since 2016, most readers will want to use the conversion table above. In other words, only use the following table if you took the ACT or SAT before 2016 and want to know how your scores would have translated at the time you took the test. All estimates below are calculated using the above table and this SAT composite score conversion chart. ACT Composite Score Estimated SAT Composite Estimated SAT Composite Range 36 2390 2310-2390 35 2300 2220-2300 34 2210 2140-2210 33 2130 2070-2130 32 2060 2010-2060 31 2000 1960-2000 30 1950 1910-1950 29 1900 1860-1900 28 1850 1820-1850 27 1810 1730-1810 26 1720 1710-1720 25 1700 1660-1700 24 1650 1600-1650 23 1590 1550-1590 22 1540 1500-1540 21 1490 1440-1490 20 1430 1400-1430 19 1390 1340-1390 18 1330 1290-1330 17 1280 1230-1280 16 1220 1180-1220 15 1170 1100-1170 14 1090 1020-1090 13 1010 940-1010 12 930 880-930 11 870 840-870 10 830 810-830 9 800 780-800 Which is easier, the ACT or the SAT? Find out with our detailed, comprehensive guide to figuring out which test is better for you. Is There an â€Å"Easier† Test at Certain Schools? Now that we've learned about the SAT-ACT conversion tables made by the test makers themselves, you might think that if you look at admission statistics for various colleges, their SAT and ACT middle 50 percent ranges will match the official SAT-ACT conversions. Before we jump into this idea, though, what is the "middle 50 percent"? For a school, this phrase refers to the SAT/ACT score ranges for the middle 50 percent (or 25th to 75th percentile scores) of admitted students. For example, if a school has an ACT middle 50 percent range of 24 to 28, this means that 25% of admits had 24 or lower, 50% had between 24 and 28, and 25% had 28 or higher on the ACT. Schools report this data since it's a clear way to present the average test score ranges of admitted students. Reporting the full range of scores would be much less helpful as schools might have an admit or two with an extremely low test score, or a few admits with perfect scores. In other words, telling potential applicants that admitted students usually get ACT scores between 16 and 36 is not particularly helpful! So do these ranges for the ACT and SAT match up according to the conversions above? The truth is, at many colleges, the SAT and ACT middle 50 percent ranges don’t match up exactly. Thus, for some schools, you'd have to do slightly better on one test to be a competitive applicant. We'll go over a few example below. You can use this information as a guide when looking up the schools you're applying to. Notice as we go through these examples just how small the differences tend to be. We are not showing that you can game the system by taking the â€Å"easier† test for a certain school. As you'll see, the differences are quite small in most cases, but they can help you aim for the most competitive target score possible. NYU We'll start with a prominent East Coast school. NYU's middle 50 percent ranges are as follows: ACT: 29-33 SAT: 1290-1490 Using Table 1 to compare the scores, we see that ACT composite scores of 29-33 match up to SAT composite scores of 1350-1480. NYU’s actual SAT range is slightly lower than that, which means you'd need a comparatively higher ACT score to be within NYU’s 50 percent range. Princeton For a highly competitive East Coast example, let’s look at Princeton. This school has the following SAT and ACT middle 50 percent ranges: ACT: 31-35 SAT: 1430-1570 According to Table 1, these SAT scores match with an ACT score range of 32-36, which is very close to Princeton's actual ACT score range. At Princeton, then, there is not a slight ACT score advantage like there is at NYU. Penn State Here are Penn State’s middle 50 percent ranges: ACT: 28-32 SAT: 1250-1430 Table 1 shows that these ACT scores convert to an SAT range of 1300-1440. In this case, you'd need to score slightly lower on the ACT than you would on the SAT to be in Penn State's middle 50 percent. University of Washington Now for a West Coast example. Here are the the University of Washington’s score ranges: ACT: 27-32 SAT: 1190-1420 According to Table 1, UW's SAT range would match up with 24-32 ACT composite. However, its actual ACT range is slightly higher at 27-32. This means you could get a comparatively lower SAT score of 1190 and be within range at UW. But if you had the matching ACT score of 24, you'd be a little less competitive. University of Southern California Another West Coast example is USC. Here are USC's middle 50 percent ranges for the SAT and ACT: ACT: 30-34 SAT: 1300-1500 By converting these ACT scores into SAT scores using Table 1, we get an SAT score range of 1360-1520. As we suspected, this suggests that your ACT score needs to be a little higher than your SAT score does to be competitive at USC. How To Maximize Your Converted ACT/SAT Score So what can we take from all of this? There are definitely some slight but noticeable differences in certain colleges’ SAT and ACT middle 50 percent ranges compared with the expected conversions. However, there are plenty of exceptions as well. Here's the thing: even in schools that seem to go slightly easier on one test, the differences are nominal. This means that it doesn't make sense to base your testing strategy entirely on whether a school appears to go easier on ACT or SAT scores. Instead, it’s much smarter to focus on the test you can do better on to maximize your score. In our test cases above, ACT and SAT ranges did not deviate from expected values by more than 20 -60 SAT points or 1-2 ACT composite points. These are minor score differences you can easily overcome with smart studying, especially if you're taking the test better suited to your strengths. For example, say you're a better SAT taker, but you notice that some Ivy League schools go a bit easier on ACT scores. If you took the ACT and got a 30 when you were capable of scoring between 1450 and 1550 on the SAT, you'd decrease your chance of getting in. In the end, there is no substitute for smart studying. But it's still useful to look up the middle 50 percent test score ranges for your target schools. You can even use the conversion charts like we did to see if the school favors one test. Then, use this info to form your own target score. For example, if you’re applying to a school that goes a bit easier on the ACT, aim for an ACT score in the upper end of their middle 50 range to ensure that, even with ACT-SAT conversion, you are still well within their typical ranges. Remember, the bottom line in college admissions is to play up your strengths. Maximizing your ACT or SAT score is by far the best advantage you can give yourself on the standardized testing front! Nearly every college and university in the United States accepts both SAT and ACT scores. However, for some of these schools, there is a significant difference between the level of SAT scores and the level of ACT scores of admitted students. What schools accept students with comparatively lower SAT scores, and what schools accept students with comparatively lower ACT scores? We've gathered our proprietary research on this topic and analysis of what these score differences mean for your testing and application strategies into this ebook. What’s Next? Sure, we’ve argued that colleges don’t give a huge advantage to either the SAT or ACT, but is one test easier than the other? Find out whether the SAT or ACT is easier. Also, check out the 11 key differences between the two tests to help you decide which one to take. If you already know which test you're taking, use our SAT or ACT goal score guide to develop a target score based on the schools you're applying to. Curious about what it takes to get a perfect SAT or ACT score? Read our perfect SAT and ACT guides, written by our resident full scorer! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points, or your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve both your SAT and ACT scores dramatically.